Sepolia Testnet

Contract

0xBd495E2cAB97441051e81f48ec2a9739957E069b

Overview

ETH Balance

0 ETH

Multichain Info

N/A
Transaction Hash
Method
Block
From
To
Value
Set Issue Fee Ra...55143782024-03-19 0:26:1292 days ago1710807972IN
0xBd495E2c...9957E069b
0 ETH0.000004980.10582132
Add Synths55143772024-03-19 0:25:4892 days ago1710807948IN
0xBd495E2c...9957E069b
0 ETH0.000026830.10848518
0x6080604054873002024-03-14 23:43:0096 days ago1710459780IN
 Create: CollateralEth
0 ETH0.000470570.11674701

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Contract Source Code Verified (Exact Match)

Contract Name:
CollateralEth

Compiler Version
v0.5.16+commit.9c3226ce

Optimization Enabled:
Yes with 200 runs

Other Settings:
default evmVersion

Contract Source Code (Solidity)

/**
 *Submitted for verification at Etherscan.io on 2024-03-15
*/

/*
   ____            __   __        __   _
  / __/__ __ ___  / /_ / /  ___  / /_ (_)__ __
 _\ \ / // // _ \/ __// _ \/ -_)/ __// / \ \ /
/___/ \_, //_//_/\__//_//_/\__/ \__//_/ /_\_\
     /___/

* Synthetix: CollateralEth.sol
*
* Latest source (may be newer): https://github.com/Synthetixio/synthetix/blob/master/contracts/CollateralEth.sol
* Docs: https://docs.synthetix.io/contracts/CollateralEth
*
* Contract Dependencies: 
*	- Collateral
*	- IAddressResolver
*	- ICollateralEth
*	- ICollateralLoan
*	- MixinResolver
*	- MixinSystemSettings
*	- Owned
*	- ReentrancyGuard
* Libraries: 
*	- Address
*	- SafeDecimalMath
*	- SafeERC20
*	- SafeMath
*
* MIT License
* ===========
*
* Copyright (c) 2024 Synthetix
*
* Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
* of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
* in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
* to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
* copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
* furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
*
* The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all
* copies or substantial portions of the Software.
*
* THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
* IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
* FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
* AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
* LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
* OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE
*/



pragma solidity ^0.5.0;

/**
 * @dev Interface of the ERC20 standard as defined in the EIP. Does not include
 * the optional functions; to access them see `ERC20Detailed`.
 */
interface IERC20 {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the amount of tokens in existence.
     */
    function totalSupply() external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the amount of tokens owned by `account`.
     */
    function balanceOf(address account) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Moves `amount` tokens from the caller's account to `recipient`.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * Emits a `Transfer` event.
     */
    function transfer(address recipient, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the remaining number of tokens that `spender` will be
     * allowed to spend on behalf of `owner` through `transferFrom`. This is
     * zero by default.
     *
     * This value changes when `approve` or `transferFrom` are called.
     */
    function allowance(address owner, address spender) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Sets `amount` as the allowance of `spender` over the caller's tokens.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * > Beware that changing an allowance with this method brings the risk
     * that someone may use both the old and the new allowance by unfortunate
     * transaction ordering. One possible solution to mitigate this race
     * condition is to first reduce the spender's allowance to 0 and set the
     * desired value afterwards:
     * https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/issues/20#issuecomment-263524729
     *
     * Emits an `Approval` event.
     */
    function approve(address spender, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Moves `amount` tokens from `sender` to `recipient` using the
     * allowance mechanism. `amount` is then deducted from the caller's
     * allowance.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * Emits a `Transfer` event.
     */
    function transferFrom(address sender, address recipient, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `value` tokens are moved from one account (`from`) to
     * another (`to`).
     *
     * Note that `value` may be zero.
     */
    event Transfer(address indexed from, address indexed to, uint256 value);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when the allowance of a `spender` for an `owner` is set by
     * a call to `approve`. `value` is the new allowance.
     */
    event Approval(address indexed owner, address indexed spender, uint256 value);
}


/**
 * @dev Wrappers over Solidity's arithmetic operations with added overflow
 * checks.
 *
 * Arithmetic operations in Solidity wrap on overflow. This can easily result
 * in bugs, because programmers usually assume that an overflow raises an
 * error, which is the standard behavior in high level programming languages.
 * `SafeMath` restores this intuition by reverting the transaction when an
 * operation overflows.
 *
 * Using this library instead of the unchecked operations eliminates an entire
 * class of bugs, so it's recommended to use it always.
 */
library SafeMath {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the addition of two unsigned integers, reverting on
     * overflow.
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `+` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     * - Addition cannot overflow.
     */
    function add(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 c = a + b;
        require(c >= a, "SafeMath: addition overflow");

        return c;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the subtraction of two unsigned integers, reverting on
     * overflow (when the result is negative).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `-` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     * - Subtraction cannot overflow.
     */
    function sub(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        require(b <= a, "SafeMath: subtraction overflow");
        uint256 c = a - b;

        return c;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the multiplication of two unsigned integers, reverting on
     * overflow.
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `*` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     * - Multiplication cannot overflow.
     */
    function mul(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        // Gas optimization: this is cheaper than requiring 'a' not being zero, but the
        // benefit is lost if 'b' is also tested.
        // See: https://github.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-solidity/pull/522
        if (a == 0) {
            return 0;
        }

        uint256 c = a * b;
        require(c / a == b, "SafeMath: multiplication overflow");

        return c;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the integer division of two unsigned integers. Reverts on
     * division by zero. The result is rounded towards zero.
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `/` operator. Note: this function uses a
     * `revert` opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity
     * uses an invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).
     *
     * Requirements:
     * - The divisor cannot be zero.
     */
    function div(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        // Solidity only automatically asserts when dividing by 0
        require(b > 0, "SafeMath: division by zero");
        uint256 c = a / b;
        // assert(a == b * c + a % b); // There is no case in which this doesn't hold

        return c;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the remainder of dividing two unsigned integers. (unsigned integer modulo),
     * Reverts when dividing by zero.
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `%` operator. This function uses a `revert`
     * opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity uses an
     * invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).
     *
     * Requirements:
     * - The divisor cannot be zero.
     */
    function mod(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        require(b != 0, "SafeMath: modulo by zero");
        return a % b;
    }
}


/**
 * @dev Collection of functions related to the address type,
 */
library Address {
    /**
     * @dev Returns true if `account` is a contract.
     *
     * This test is non-exhaustive, and there may be false-negatives: during the
     * execution of a contract's constructor, its address will be reported as
     * not containing a contract.
     *
     * > It is unsafe to assume that an address for which this function returns
     * false is an externally-owned account (EOA) and not a contract.
     */
    function isContract(address account) internal view returns (bool) {
        // This method relies in extcodesize, which returns 0 for contracts in
        // construction, since the code is only stored at the end of the
        // constructor execution.

        uint256 size;
        // solhint-disable-next-line no-inline-assembly
        assembly { size := extcodesize(account) }
        return size > 0;
    }
}


/**
 * @title SafeERC20
 * @dev Wrappers around ERC20 operations that throw on failure (when the token
 * contract returns false). Tokens that return no value (and instead revert or
 * throw on failure) are also supported, non-reverting calls are assumed to be
 * successful.
 * To use this library you can add a `using SafeERC20 for ERC20;` statement to your contract,
 * which allows you to call the safe operations as `token.safeTransfer(...)`, etc.
 */
library SafeERC20 {
    using SafeMath for uint256;
    using Address for address;

    function safeTransfer(IERC20 token, address to, uint256 value) internal {
        callOptionalReturn(token, abi.encodeWithSelector(token.transfer.selector, to, value));
    }

    function safeTransferFrom(IERC20 token, address from, address to, uint256 value) internal {
        callOptionalReturn(token, abi.encodeWithSelector(token.transferFrom.selector, from, to, value));
    }

    function safeApprove(IERC20 token, address spender, uint256 value) internal {
        // safeApprove should only be called when setting an initial allowance,
        // or when resetting it to zero. To increase and decrease it, use
        // 'safeIncreaseAllowance' and 'safeDecreaseAllowance'
        // solhint-disable-next-line max-line-length
        require((value == 0) || (token.allowance(address(this), spender) == 0),
            "SafeERC20: approve from non-zero to non-zero allowance"
        );
        callOptionalReturn(token, abi.encodeWithSelector(token.approve.selector, spender, value));
    }

    function safeIncreaseAllowance(IERC20 token, address spender, uint256 value) internal {
        uint256 newAllowance = token.allowance(address(this), spender).add(value);
        callOptionalReturn(token, abi.encodeWithSelector(token.approve.selector, spender, newAllowance));
    }

    function safeDecreaseAllowance(IERC20 token, address spender, uint256 value) internal {
        uint256 newAllowance = token.allowance(address(this), spender).sub(value);
        callOptionalReturn(token, abi.encodeWithSelector(token.approve.selector, spender, newAllowance));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Imitates a Solidity high-level call (i.e. a regular function call to a contract), relaxing the requirement
     * on the return value: the return value is optional (but if data is returned, it must not be false).
     * @param token The token targeted by the call.
     * @param data The call data (encoded using abi.encode or one of its variants).
     */
    function callOptionalReturn(IERC20 token, bytes memory data) private {
        // We need to perform a low level call here, to bypass Solidity's return data size checking mechanism, since
        // we're implementing it ourselves.

        // A Solidity high level call has three parts:
        //  1. The target address is checked to verify it contains contract code
        //  2. The call itself is made, and success asserted
        //  3. The return value is decoded, which in turn checks the size of the returned data.
        // solhint-disable-next-line max-line-length
        require(address(token).isContract(), "SafeERC20: call to non-contract");

        // solhint-disable-next-line avoid-low-level-calls
        (bool success, bytes memory returndata) = address(token).call(data);
        require(success, "SafeERC20: low-level call failed");

        if (returndata.length > 0) { // Return data is optional
            // solhint-disable-next-line max-line-length
            require(abi.decode(returndata, (bool)), "SafeERC20: ERC20 operation did not succeed");
        }
    }
}


// https://docs.synthetix.io/contracts/source/contracts/owned
contract Owned {
    address public owner;
    address public nominatedOwner;

    constructor(address _owner) public {
        require(_owner != address(0), "Owner address cannot be 0");
        owner = _owner;
        emit OwnerChanged(address(0), _owner);
    }

    function nominateNewOwner(address _owner) external onlyOwner {
        nominatedOwner = _owner;
        emit OwnerNominated(_owner);
    }

    function acceptOwnership() external {
        require(msg.sender == nominatedOwner, "You must be nominated before you can accept ownership");
        emit OwnerChanged(owner, nominatedOwner);
        owner = nominatedOwner;
        nominatedOwner = address(0);
    }

    modifier onlyOwner {
        _onlyOwner();
        _;
    }

    function _onlyOwner() private view {
        require(msg.sender == owner, "Only the contract owner may perform this action");
    }

    event OwnerNominated(address newOwner);
    event OwnerChanged(address oldOwner, address newOwner);
}


// https://docs.synthetix.io/contracts/source/interfaces/iaddressresolver
interface IAddressResolver {
    function getAddress(bytes32 name) external view returns (address);

    function getSynth(bytes32 key) external view returns (address);

    function requireAndGetAddress(bytes32 name, string calldata reason) external view returns (address);
}


// https://docs.synthetix.io/contracts/source/interfaces/isynth
interface ISynth {
    // Views
    function currencyKey() external view returns (bytes32);

    function transferableSynths(address account) external view returns (uint);

    // Mutative functions
    function transferAndSettle(address to, uint value) external returns (bool);

    function transferFromAndSettle(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint value
    ) external returns (bool);

    // Restricted: used internally to Synthetix
    function burn(address account, uint amount) external;

    function issue(address account, uint amount) external;
}


// https://docs.synthetix.io/contracts/source/interfaces/iissuer
interface IIssuer {
    // Views

    function allNetworksDebtInfo()
        external
        view
        returns (
            uint256 debt,
            uint256 sharesSupply,
            bool isStale
        );

    function anySynthOrSNXRateIsInvalid() external view returns (bool anyRateInvalid);

    function availableCurrencyKeys() external view returns (bytes32[] memory);

    function availableSynthCount() external view returns (uint);

    function availableSynths(uint index) external view returns (ISynth);

    function canBurnSynths(address account) external view returns (bool);

    function collateral(address account) external view returns (uint);

    function collateralisationRatio(address issuer) external view returns (uint);

    function collateralisationRatioAndAnyRatesInvalid(address _issuer)
        external
        view
        returns (uint cratio, bool anyRateIsInvalid);

    function debtBalanceOf(address issuer, bytes32 currencyKey) external view returns (uint debtBalance);

    function issuanceRatio() external view returns (uint);

    function lastIssueEvent(address account) external view returns (uint);

    function maxIssuableSynths(address issuer) external view returns (uint maxIssuable);

    function minimumStakeTime() external view returns (uint);

    function remainingIssuableSynths(address issuer)
        external
        view
        returns (
            uint maxIssuable,
            uint alreadyIssued,
            uint totalSystemDebt
        );

    function synths(bytes32 currencyKey) external view returns (ISynth);

    function getSynths(bytes32[] calldata currencyKeys) external view returns (ISynth[] memory);

    function synthsByAddress(address synthAddress) external view returns (bytes32);

    function totalIssuedSynths(bytes32 currencyKey, bool excludeOtherCollateral) external view returns (uint);

    function transferableSynthetixAndAnyRateIsInvalid(address account, uint balance)
        external
        view
        returns (uint transferable, bool anyRateIsInvalid);

    function liquidationAmounts(address account, bool isSelfLiquidation)
        external
        view
        returns (
            uint totalRedeemed,
            uint debtToRemove,
            uint escrowToLiquidate,
            uint initialDebtBalance
        );

    // Restricted: used internally to Synthetix
    function addSynths(ISynth[] calldata synthsToAdd) external;

    function issueSynths(address from, uint amount) external;

    function issueSynthsOnBehalf(
        address issueFor,
        address from,
        uint amount
    ) external;

    function issueMaxSynths(address from) external;

    function issueMaxSynthsOnBehalf(address issueFor, address from) external;

    function burnSynths(address from, uint amount) external;

    function burnSynthsOnBehalf(
        address burnForAddress,
        address from,
        uint amount
    ) external;

    function burnSynthsToTarget(address from) external;

    function burnSynthsToTargetOnBehalf(address burnForAddress, address from) external;

    function burnForRedemption(
        address deprecatedSynthProxy,
        address account,
        uint balance
    ) external;

    function setCurrentPeriodId(uint128 periodId) external;

    function liquidateAccount(address account, bool isSelfLiquidation)
        external
        returns (
            uint totalRedeemed,
            uint debtRemoved,
            uint escrowToLiquidate
        );

    function issueSynthsWithoutDebt(
        bytes32 currencyKey,
        address to,
        uint amount
    ) external returns (bool rateInvalid);

    function burnSynthsWithoutDebt(
        bytes32 currencyKey,
        address to,
        uint amount
    ) external returns (bool rateInvalid);

    function modifyDebtSharesForMigration(address account, uint amount) external;
}


// Inheritance


// Internal references


// https://docs.synthetix.io/contracts/source/contracts/addressresolver
contract AddressResolver is Owned, IAddressResolver {
    mapping(bytes32 => address) public repository;

    constructor(address _owner) public Owned(_owner) {}

    /* ========== RESTRICTED FUNCTIONS ========== */

    function importAddresses(bytes32[] calldata names, address[] calldata destinations) external onlyOwner {
        require(names.length == destinations.length, "Input lengths must match");

        for (uint i = 0; i < names.length; i++) {
            bytes32 name = names[i];
            address destination = destinations[i];
            repository[name] = destination;
            emit AddressImported(name, destination);
        }
    }

    /* ========= PUBLIC FUNCTIONS ========== */

    function rebuildCaches(MixinResolver[] calldata destinations) external {
        for (uint i = 0; i < destinations.length; i++) {
            destinations[i].rebuildCache();
        }
    }

    /* ========== VIEWS ========== */

    function areAddressesImported(bytes32[] calldata names, address[] calldata destinations) external view returns (bool) {
        for (uint i = 0; i < names.length; i++) {
            if (repository[names[i]] != destinations[i]) {
                return false;
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    function getAddress(bytes32 name) external view returns (address) {
        return repository[name];
    }

    function requireAndGetAddress(bytes32 name, string calldata reason) external view returns (address) {
        address _foundAddress = repository[name];
        require(_foundAddress != address(0), reason);
        return _foundAddress;
    }

    function getSynth(bytes32 key) external view returns (address) {
        IIssuer issuer = IIssuer(repository["Issuer"]);
        require(address(issuer) != address(0), "Cannot find Issuer address");
        return address(issuer.synths(key));
    }

    /* ========== EVENTS ========== */

    event AddressImported(bytes32 name, address destination);
}


// Internal references


// https://docs.synthetix.io/contracts/source/contracts/mixinresolver
contract MixinResolver {
    AddressResolver public resolver;

    mapping(bytes32 => address) private addressCache;

    constructor(address _resolver) internal {
        resolver = AddressResolver(_resolver);
    }

    /* ========== INTERNAL FUNCTIONS ========== */

    function combineArrays(bytes32[] memory first, bytes32[] memory second)
        internal
        pure
        returns (bytes32[] memory combination)
    {
        combination = new bytes32[](first.length + second.length);

        for (uint i = 0; i < first.length; i++) {
            combination[i] = first[i];
        }

        for (uint j = 0; j < second.length; j++) {
            combination[first.length + j] = second[j];
        }
    }

    /* ========== PUBLIC FUNCTIONS ========== */

    // Note: this function is public not external in order for it to be overridden and invoked via super in subclasses
    function resolverAddressesRequired() public view returns (bytes32[] memory addresses) {}

    function rebuildCache() public {
        bytes32[] memory requiredAddresses = resolverAddressesRequired();
        // The resolver must call this function whenver it updates its state
        for (uint i = 0; i < requiredAddresses.length; i++) {
            bytes32 name = requiredAddresses[i];
            // Note: can only be invoked once the resolver has all the targets needed added
            address destination =
                resolver.requireAndGetAddress(name, string(abi.encodePacked("Resolver missing target: ", name)));
            addressCache[name] = destination;
            emit CacheUpdated(name, destination);
        }
    }

    /* ========== VIEWS ========== */

    function isResolverCached() external view returns (bool) {
        bytes32[] memory requiredAddresses = resolverAddressesRequired();
        for (uint i = 0; i < requiredAddresses.length; i++) {
            bytes32 name = requiredAddresses[i];
            // false if our cache is invalid or if the resolver doesn't have the required address
            if (resolver.getAddress(name) != addressCache[name] || addressCache[name] == address(0)) {
                return false;
            }
        }

        return true;
    }

    /* ========== INTERNAL FUNCTIONS ========== */

    function requireAndGetAddress(bytes32 name) internal view returns (address) {
        address _foundAddress = addressCache[name];
        require(_foundAddress != address(0), string(abi.encodePacked("Missing address: ", name)));
        return _foundAddress;
    }

    /* ========== EVENTS ========== */

    event CacheUpdated(bytes32 name, address destination);
}


// https://docs.synthetix.io/contracts/source/interfaces/iflexiblestorage
interface IFlexibleStorage {
    // Views
    function getUIntValue(bytes32 contractName, bytes32 record) external view returns (uint);

    function getUIntValues(bytes32 contractName, bytes32[] calldata records) external view returns (uint[] memory);

    function getIntValue(bytes32 contractName, bytes32 record) external view returns (int);

    function getIntValues(bytes32 contractName, bytes32[] calldata records) external view returns (int[] memory);

    function getAddressValue(bytes32 contractName, bytes32 record) external view returns (address);

    function getAddressValues(bytes32 contractName, bytes32[] calldata records) external view returns (address[] memory);

    function getBoolValue(bytes32 contractName, bytes32 record) external view returns (bool);

    function getBoolValues(bytes32 contractName, bytes32[] calldata records) external view returns (bool[] memory);

    function getBytes32Value(bytes32 contractName, bytes32 record) external view returns (bytes32);

    function getBytes32Values(bytes32 contractName, bytes32[] calldata records) external view returns (bytes32[] memory);

    // Mutative functions
    function deleteUIntValue(bytes32 contractName, bytes32 record) external;

    function deleteIntValue(bytes32 contractName, bytes32 record) external;

    function deleteAddressValue(bytes32 contractName, bytes32 record) external;

    function deleteBoolValue(bytes32 contractName, bytes32 record) external;

    function deleteBytes32Value(bytes32 contractName, bytes32 record) external;

    function setUIntValue(
        bytes32 contractName,
        bytes32 record,
        uint value
    ) external;

    function setUIntValues(
        bytes32 contractName,
        bytes32[] calldata records,
        uint[] calldata values
    ) external;

    function setIntValue(
        bytes32 contractName,
        bytes32 record,
        int value
    ) external;

    function setIntValues(
        bytes32 contractName,
        bytes32[] calldata records,
        int[] calldata values
    ) external;

    function setAddressValue(
        bytes32 contractName,
        bytes32 record,
        address value
    ) external;

    function setAddressValues(
        bytes32 contractName,
        bytes32[] calldata records,
        address[] calldata values
    ) external;

    function setBoolValue(
        bytes32 contractName,
        bytes32 record,
        bool value
    ) external;

    function setBoolValues(
        bytes32 contractName,
        bytes32[] calldata records,
        bool[] calldata values
    ) external;

    function setBytes32Value(
        bytes32 contractName,
        bytes32 record,
        bytes32 value
    ) external;

    function setBytes32Values(
        bytes32 contractName,
        bytes32[] calldata records,
        bytes32[] calldata values
    ) external;
}


// Internal references


// https://docs.synthetix.io/contracts/source/contracts/mixinsystemsettings
contract MixinSystemSettings is MixinResolver {
    // must match the one defined SystemSettingsLib, defined in both places due to sol v0.5 limitations
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME = "SystemSettings";

    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_WAITING_PERIOD_SECS = "waitingPeriodSecs";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_PRICE_DEVIATION_THRESHOLD_FACTOR = "priceDeviationThresholdFactor";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_ISSUANCE_RATIO = "issuanceRatio";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_FEE_PERIOD_DURATION = "feePeriodDuration";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_TARGET_THRESHOLD = "targetThreshold";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_LIQUIDATION_DELAY = "liquidationDelay";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_LIQUIDATION_RATIO = "liquidationRatio";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_LIQUIDATION_ESCROW_DURATION = "liquidationEscrowDuration";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_LIQUIDATION_PENALTY = "liquidationPenalty";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_SNX_LIQUIDATION_PENALTY = "snxLiquidationPenalty";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_SELF_LIQUIDATION_PENALTY = "selfLiquidationPenalty";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_FLAG_REWARD = "flagReward";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_LIQUIDATE_REWARD = "liquidateReward";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_RATE_STALE_PERIOD = "rateStalePeriod";
    /* ========== Exchange Fees Related ========== */
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_EXCHANGE_FEE_RATE = "exchangeFeeRate";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_EXCHANGE_DYNAMIC_FEE_THRESHOLD = "exchangeDynamicFeeThreshold";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_EXCHANGE_DYNAMIC_FEE_WEIGHT_DECAY = "exchangeDynamicFeeWeightDecay";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_EXCHANGE_DYNAMIC_FEE_ROUNDS = "exchangeDynamicFeeRounds";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_EXCHANGE_MAX_DYNAMIC_FEE = "exchangeMaxDynamicFee";
    /* ========== End Exchange Fees Related ========== */
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_MINIMUM_STAKE_TIME = "minimumStakeTime";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_AGGREGATOR_WARNING_FLAGS = "aggregatorWarningFlags";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_TRADING_REWARDS_ENABLED = "tradingRewardsEnabled";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_DEBT_SNAPSHOT_STALE_TIME = "debtSnapshotStaleTime";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_CROSS_DOMAIN_DEPOSIT_GAS_LIMIT = "crossDomainDepositGasLimit";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_CROSS_DOMAIN_ESCROW_GAS_LIMIT = "crossDomainEscrowGasLimit";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_CROSS_DOMAIN_REWARD_GAS_LIMIT = "crossDomainRewardGasLimit";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_CROSS_DOMAIN_WITHDRAWAL_GAS_LIMIT = "crossDomainWithdrawalGasLimit";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_CROSS_DOMAIN_FEE_PERIOD_CLOSE_GAS_LIMIT = "crossDomainCloseGasLimit";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_CROSS_DOMAIN_RELAY_GAS_LIMIT = "crossDomainRelayGasLimit";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_ETHER_WRAPPER_MAX_ETH = "etherWrapperMaxETH";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_ETHER_WRAPPER_MINT_FEE_RATE = "etherWrapperMintFeeRate";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_ETHER_WRAPPER_BURN_FEE_RATE = "etherWrapperBurnFeeRate";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_WRAPPER_MAX_TOKEN_AMOUNT = "wrapperMaxTokens";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_WRAPPER_MINT_FEE_RATE = "wrapperMintFeeRate";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_WRAPPER_BURN_FEE_RATE = "wrapperBurnFeeRate";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_INTERACTION_DELAY = "interactionDelay";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_COLLAPSE_FEE_RATE = "collapseFeeRate";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_ATOMIC_MAX_VOLUME_PER_BLOCK = "atomicMaxVolumePerBlock";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_ATOMIC_TWAP_WINDOW = "atomicTwapWindow";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_ATOMIC_EQUIVALENT_FOR_DEX_PRICING = "atomicEquivalentForDexPricing";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_ATOMIC_EXCHANGE_FEE_RATE = "atomicExchangeFeeRate";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_ATOMIC_VOLATILITY_CONSIDERATION_WINDOW = "atomicVolConsiderationWindow";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_ATOMIC_VOLATILITY_UPDATE_THRESHOLD = "atomicVolUpdateThreshold";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_PURE_CHAINLINK_PRICE_FOR_ATOMIC_SWAPS_ENABLED = "pureChainlinkForAtomicsEnabled";
    bytes32 internal constant SETTING_CROSS_SYNTH_TRANSFER_ENABLED = "crossChainSynthTransferEnabled";

    bytes32 internal constant CONTRACT_FLEXIBLESTORAGE = "FlexibleStorage";

    enum CrossDomainMessageGasLimits {Deposit, Escrow, Reward, Withdrawal, CloseFeePeriod, Relay}

    struct DynamicFeeConfig {
        uint threshold;
        uint weightDecay;
        uint rounds;
        uint maxFee;
    }

    constructor(address _resolver) internal MixinResolver(_resolver) {}

    function resolverAddressesRequired() public view returns (bytes32[] memory addresses) {
        addresses = new bytes32[](1);
        addresses[0] = CONTRACT_FLEXIBLESTORAGE;
    }

    function flexibleStorage() internal view returns (IFlexibleStorage) {
        return IFlexibleStorage(requireAndGetAddress(CONTRACT_FLEXIBLESTORAGE));
    }

    function _getGasLimitSetting(CrossDomainMessageGasLimits gasLimitType) internal pure returns (bytes32) {
        if (gasLimitType == CrossDomainMessageGasLimits.Deposit) {
            return SETTING_CROSS_DOMAIN_DEPOSIT_GAS_LIMIT;
        } else if (gasLimitType == CrossDomainMessageGasLimits.Escrow) {
            return SETTING_CROSS_DOMAIN_ESCROW_GAS_LIMIT;
        } else if (gasLimitType == CrossDomainMessageGasLimits.Reward) {
            return SETTING_CROSS_DOMAIN_REWARD_GAS_LIMIT;
        } else if (gasLimitType == CrossDomainMessageGasLimits.Withdrawal) {
            return SETTING_CROSS_DOMAIN_WITHDRAWAL_GAS_LIMIT;
        } else if (gasLimitType == CrossDomainMessageGasLimits.Relay) {
            return SETTING_CROSS_DOMAIN_RELAY_GAS_LIMIT;
        } else if (gasLimitType == CrossDomainMessageGasLimits.CloseFeePeriod) {
            return SETTING_CROSS_DOMAIN_FEE_PERIOD_CLOSE_GAS_LIMIT;
        } else {
            revert("Unknown gas limit type");
        }
    }

    function getCrossDomainMessageGasLimit(CrossDomainMessageGasLimits gasLimitType) internal view returns (uint) {
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, _getGasLimitSetting(gasLimitType));
    }

    function getTradingRewardsEnabled() internal view returns (bool) {
        return flexibleStorage().getBoolValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_TRADING_REWARDS_ENABLED);
    }

    function getWaitingPeriodSecs() internal view returns (uint) {
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_WAITING_PERIOD_SECS);
    }

    function getPriceDeviationThresholdFactor() internal view returns (uint) {
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_PRICE_DEVIATION_THRESHOLD_FACTOR);
    }

    function getIssuanceRatio() internal view returns (uint) {
        // lookup on flexible storage directly for gas savings (rather than via SystemSettings)
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_ISSUANCE_RATIO);
    }

    function getFeePeriodDuration() internal view returns (uint) {
        // lookup on flexible storage directly for gas savings (rather than via SystemSettings)
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_FEE_PERIOD_DURATION);
    }

    function getTargetThreshold() internal view returns (uint) {
        // lookup on flexible storage directly for gas savings (rather than via SystemSettings)
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_TARGET_THRESHOLD);
    }

    function getLiquidationDelay() internal view returns (uint) {
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_LIQUIDATION_DELAY);
    }

    function getLiquidationRatio() internal view returns (uint) {
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_LIQUIDATION_RATIO);
    }

    function getLiquidationEscrowDuration() internal view returns (uint) {
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_LIQUIDATION_ESCROW_DURATION);
    }

    function getLiquidationPenalty() internal view returns (uint) {
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_LIQUIDATION_PENALTY);
    }

    function getSnxLiquidationPenalty() internal view returns (uint) {
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_SNX_LIQUIDATION_PENALTY);
    }

    function getSelfLiquidationPenalty() internal view returns (uint) {
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_SELF_LIQUIDATION_PENALTY);
    }

    function getFlagReward() internal view returns (uint) {
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_FLAG_REWARD);
    }

    function getLiquidateReward() internal view returns (uint) {
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_LIQUIDATE_REWARD);
    }

    function getRateStalePeriod() internal view returns (uint) {
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_RATE_STALE_PERIOD);
    }

    /* ========== Exchange Related Fees ========== */
    function getExchangeFeeRate(bytes32 currencyKey) internal view returns (uint) {
        return
            flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(
                SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME,
                keccak256(abi.encodePacked(SETTING_EXCHANGE_FEE_RATE, currencyKey))
            );
    }

    /// @notice Get exchange dynamic fee related keys
    /// @return threshold, weight decay, rounds, and max fee
    function getExchangeDynamicFeeConfig() internal view returns (DynamicFeeConfig memory) {
        bytes32[] memory keys = new bytes32[](4);
        keys[0] = SETTING_EXCHANGE_DYNAMIC_FEE_THRESHOLD;
        keys[1] = SETTING_EXCHANGE_DYNAMIC_FEE_WEIGHT_DECAY;
        keys[2] = SETTING_EXCHANGE_DYNAMIC_FEE_ROUNDS;
        keys[3] = SETTING_EXCHANGE_MAX_DYNAMIC_FEE;
        uint[] memory values = flexibleStorage().getUIntValues(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, keys);
        return DynamicFeeConfig({threshold: values[0], weightDecay: values[1], rounds: values[2], maxFee: values[3]});
    }

    /* ========== End Exchange Related Fees ========== */

    function getMinimumStakeTime() internal view returns (uint) {
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_MINIMUM_STAKE_TIME);
    }

    function getAggregatorWarningFlags() internal view returns (address) {
        return flexibleStorage().getAddressValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_AGGREGATOR_WARNING_FLAGS);
    }

    function getDebtSnapshotStaleTime() internal view returns (uint) {
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_DEBT_SNAPSHOT_STALE_TIME);
    }

    function getEtherWrapperMaxETH() internal view returns (uint) {
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_ETHER_WRAPPER_MAX_ETH);
    }

    function getEtherWrapperMintFeeRate() internal view returns (uint) {
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_ETHER_WRAPPER_MINT_FEE_RATE);
    }

    function getEtherWrapperBurnFeeRate() internal view returns (uint) {
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_ETHER_WRAPPER_BURN_FEE_RATE);
    }

    function getWrapperMaxTokenAmount(address wrapper) internal view returns (uint) {
        return
            flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(
                SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME,
                keccak256(abi.encodePacked(SETTING_WRAPPER_MAX_TOKEN_AMOUNT, wrapper))
            );
    }

    function getWrapperMintFeeRate(address wrapper) internal view returns (int) {
        return
            flexibleStorage().getIntValue(
                SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME,
                keccak256(abi.encodePacked(SETTING_WRAPPER_MINT_FEE_RATE, wrapper))
            );
    }

    function getWrapperBurnFeeRate(address wrapper) internal view returns (int) {
        return
            flexibleStorage().getIntValue(
                SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME,
                keccak256(abi.encodePacked(SETTING_WRAPPER_BURN_FEE_RATE, wrapper))
            );
    }

    function getInteractionDelay(address collateral) internal view returns (uint) {
        return
            flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(
                SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME,
                keccak256(abi.encodePacked(SETTING_INTERACTION_DELAY, collateral))
            );
    }

    function getCollapseFeeRate(address collateral) internal view returns (uint) {
        return
            flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(
                SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME,
                keccak256(abi.encodePacked(SETTING_COLLAPSE_FEE_RATE, collateral))
            );
    }

    function getAtomicMaxVolumePerBlock() internal view returns (uint) {
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_ATOMIC_MAX_VOLUME_PER_BLOCK);
    }

    function getAtomicTwapWindow() internal view returns (uint) {
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_ATOMIC_TWAP_WINDOW);
    }

    function getAtomicEquivalentForDexPricing(bytes32 currencyKey) internal view returns (address) {
        return
            flexibleStorage().getAddressValue(
                SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME,
                keccak256(abi.encodePacked(SETTING_ATOMIC_EQUIVALENT_FOR_DEX_PRICING, currencyKey))
            );
    }

    function getAtomicExchangeFeeRate(bytes32 currencyKey) internal view returns (uint) {
        return
            flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(
                SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME,
                keccak256(abi.encodePacked(SETTING_ATOMIC_EXCHANGE_FEE_RATE, currencyKey))
            );
    }

    function getAtomicVolatilityConsiderationWindow(bytes32 currencyKey) internal view returns (uint) {
        return
            flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(
                SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME,
                keccak256(abi.encodePacked(SETTING_ATOMIC_VOLATILITY_CONSIDERATION_WINDOW, currencyKey))
            );
    }

    function getAtomicVolatilityUpdateThreshold(bytes32 currencyKey) internal view returns (uint) {
        return
            flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(
                SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME,
                keccak256(abi.encodePacked(SETTING_ATOMIC_VOLATILITY_UPDATE_THRESHOLD, currencyKey))
            );
    }

    function getPureChainlinkPriceForAtomicSwapsEnabled(bytes32 currencyKey) internal view returns (bool) {
        return
            flexibleStorage().getBoolValue(
                SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME,
                keccak256(abi.encodePacked(SETTING_PURE_CHAINLINK_PRICE_FOR_ATOMIC_SWAPS_ENABLED, currencyKey))
            );
    }

    function getCrossChainSynthTransferEnabled(bytes32 currencyKey) internal view returns (uint) {
        return
            flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(
                SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME,
                keccak256(abi.encodePacked(SETTING_CROSS_SYNTH_TRANSFER_ENABLED, currencyKey))
            );
    }

    function getExchangeMaxDynamicFee() internal view returns (uint) {
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_EXCHANGE_MAX_DYNAMIC_FEE);
    }

    function getExchangeDynamicFeeRounds() internal view returns (uint) {
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_EXCHANGE_DYNAMIC_FEE_ROUNDS);
    }

    function getExchangeDynamicFeeThreshold() internal view returns (uint) {
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_EXCHANGE_DYNAMIC_FEE_THRESHOLD);
    }

    function getExchangeDynamicFeeWeightDecay() internal view returns (uint) {
        return flexibleStorage().getUIntValue(SETTING_CONTRACT_NAME, SETTING_EXCHANGE_DYNAMIC_FEE_WEIGHT_DECAY);
    }
}


pragma experimental ABIEncoderV2;

interface ICollateralLoan {
    struct Loan {
        // ID for the loan
        uint id;
        //  Acccount that created the loan
        address payable account;
        //  Amount of collateral deposited
        uint collateral;
        // The synth that was borowed
        bytes32 currency;
        //  Amount of synths borrowed
        uint amount;
        // Indicates if the position was short sold
        bool short;
        // interest amounts accrued
        uint accruedInterest;
        // last interest index
        uint interestIndex;
        // time of last interaction.
        uint lastInteraction;
    }
}


// Libraries


// https://docs.synthetix.io/contracts/source/libraries/safedecimalmath
library SafeDecimalMath {
    using SafeMath for uint;

    /* Number of decimal places in the representations. */
    uint8 public constant decimals = 18;
    uint8 public constant highPrecisionDecimals = 27;

    /* The number representing 1.0. */
    uint public constant UNIT = 10**uint(decimals);

    /* The number representing 1.0 for higher fidelity numbers. */
    uint public constant PRECISE_UNIT = 10**uint(highPrecisionDecimals);
    uint private constant UNIT_TO_HIGH_PRECISION_CONVERSION_FACTOR = 10**uint(highPrecisionDecimals - decimals);

    /**
     * @return Provides an interface to UNIT.
     */
    function unit() external pure returns (uint) {
        return UNIT;
    }

    /**
     * @return Provides an interface to PRECISE_UNIT.
     */
    function preciseUnit() external pure returns (uint) {
        return PRECISE_UNIT;
    }

    /**
     * @return The result of multiplying x and y, interpreting the operands as fixed-point
     * decimals.
     *
     * @dev A unit factor is divided out after the product of x and y is evaluated,
     * so that product must be less than 2**256. As this is an integer division,
     * the internal division always rounds down. This helps save on gas. Rounding
     * is more expensive on gas.
     */
    function multiplyDecimal(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint) {
        /* Divide by UNIT to remove the extra factor introduced by the product. */
        return x.mul(y) / UNIT;
    }

    /**
     * @return The result of safely multiplying x and y, interpreting the operands
     * as fixed-point decimals of the specified precision unit.
     *
     * @dev The operands should be in the form of a the specified unit factor which will be
     * divided out after the product of x and y is evaluated, so that product must be
     * less than 2**256.
     *
     * Unlike multiplyDecimal, this function rounds the result to the nearest increment.
     * Rounding is useful when you need to retain fidelity for small decimal numbers
     * (eg. small fractions or percentages).
     */
    function _multiplyDecimalRound(
        uint x,
        uint y,
        uint precisionUnit
    ) private pure returns (uint) {
        /* Divide by UNIT to remove the extra factor introduced by the product. */
        uint quotientTimesTen = x.mul(y) / (precisionUnit / 10);

        if (quotientTimesTen % 10 >= 5) {
            quotientTimesTen += 10;
        }

        return quotientTimesTen / 10;
    }

    /**
     * @return The result of safely multiplying x and y, interpreting the operands
     * as fixed-point decimals of a precise unit.
     *
     * @dev The operands should be in the precise unit factor which will be
     * divided out after the product of x and y is evaluated, so that product must be
     * less than 2**256.
     *
     * Unlike multiplyDecimal, this function rounds the result to the nearest increment.
     * Rounding is useful when you need to retain fidelity for small decimal numbers
     * (eg. small fractions or percentages).
     */
    function multiplyDecimalRoundPrecise(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint) {
        return _multiplyDecimalRound(x, y, PRECISE_UNIT);
    }

    /**
     * @return The result of safely multiplying x and y, interpreting the operands
     * as fixed-point decimals of a standard unit.
     *
     * @dev The operands should be in the standard unit factor which will be
     * divided out after the product of x and y is evaluated, so that product must be
     * less than 2**256.
     *
     * Unlike multiplyDecimal, this function rounds the result to the nearest increment.
     * Rounding is useful when you need to retain fidelity for small decimal numbers
     * (eg. small fractions or percentages).
     */
    function multiplyDecimalRound(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint) {
        return _multiplyDecimalRound(x, y, UNIT);
    }

    /**
     * @return The result of safely dividing x and y. The return value is a high
     * precision decimal.
     *
     * @dev y is divided after the product of x and the standard precision unit
     * is evaluated, so the product of x and UNIT must be less than 2**256. As
     * this is an integer division, the result is always rounded down.
     * This helps save on gas. Rounding is more expensive on gas.
     */
    function divideDecimal(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint) {
        /* Reintroduce the UNIT factor that will be divided out by y. */
        return x.mul(UNIT).div(y);
    }

    /**
     * @return The result of safely dividing x and y. The return value is as a rounded
     * decimal in the precision unit specified in the parameter.
     *
     * @dev y is divided after the product of x and the specified precision unit
     * is evaluated, so the product of x and the specified precision unit must
     * be less than 2**256. The result is rounded to the nearest increment.
     */
    function _divideDecimalRound(
        uint x,
        uint y,
        uint precisionUnit
    ) private pure returns (uint) {
        uint resultTimesTen = x.mul(precisionUnit * 10).div(y);

        if (resultTimesTen % 10 >= 5) {
            resultTimesTen += 10;
        }

        return resultTimesTen / 10;
    }

    /**
     * @return The result of safely dividing x and y. The return value is as a rounded
     * standard precision decimal.
     *
     * @dev y is divided after the product of x and the standard precision unit
     * is evaluated, so the product of x and the standard precision unit must
     * be less than 2**256. The result is rounded to the nearest increment.
     */
    function divideDecimalRound(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint) {
        return _divideDecimalRound(x, y, UNIT);
    }

    /**
     * @return The result of safely dividing x and y. The return value is as a rounded
     * high precision decimal.
     *
     * @dev y is divided after the product of x and the high precision unit
     * is evaluated, so the product of x and the high precision unit must
     * be less than 2**256. The result is rounded to the nearest increment.
     */
    function divideDecimalRoundPrecise(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint) {
        return _divideDecimalRound(x, y, PRECISE_UNIT);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Convert a standard decimal representation to a high precision one.
     */
    function decimalToPreciseDecimal(uint i) internal pure returns (uint) {
        return i.mul(UNIT_TO_HIGH_PRECISION_CONVERSION_FACTOR);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Convert a high precision decimal to a standard decimal representation.
     */
    function preciseDecimalToDecimal(uint i) internal pure returns (uint) {
        uint quotientTimesTen = i / (UNIT_TO_HIGH_PRECISION_CONVERSION_FACTOR / 10);

        if (quotientTimesTen % 10 >= 5) {
            quotientTimesTen += 10;
        }

        return quotientTimesTen / 10;
    }

    // Computes `a - b`, setting the value to 0 if b > a.
    function floorsub(uint a, uint b) internal pure returns (uint) {
        return b >= a ? 0 : a - b;
    }

    /* ---------- Utilities ---------- */
    /*
     * Absolute value of the input, returned as a signed number.
     */
    function signedAbs(int x) internal pure returns (int) {
        return x < 0 ? -x : x;
    }

    /*
     * Absolute value of the input, returned as an unsigned number.
     */
    function abs(int x) internal pure returns (uint) {
        return uint(signedAbs(x));
    }
}


interface ICollateralUtil {
    function getCollateralRatio(ICollateralLoan.Loan calldata loan, bytes32 collateralKey)
        external
        view
        returns (uint cratio);

    function maxLoan(
        uint amount,
        bytes32 currency,
        uint minCratio,
        bytes32 collateralKey
    ) external view returns (uint max);

    function liquidationAmount(
        ICollateralLoan.Loan calldata loan,
        uint minCratio,
        bytes32 collateralKey
    ) external view returns (uint amount);

    function collateralRedeemed(
        bytes32 currency,
        uint amount,
        bytes32 collateralKey
    ) external view returns (uint collateral);
}


interface ICollateralManager {
    // Manager information
    function hasCollateral(address collateral) external view returns (bool);

    function isSynthManaged(bytes32 currencyKey) external view returns (bool);

    // State information
    function long(bytes32 synth) external view returns (uint amount);

    function short(bytes32 synth) external view returns (uint amount);

    function totalLong() external view returns (uint susdValue, bool anyRateIsInvalid);

    function totalShort() external view returns (uint susdValue, bool anyRateIsInvalid);

    function getBorrowRate() external view returns (uint borrowRate, bool anyRateIsInvalid);

    function getShortRate(bytes32 synth) external view returns (uint shortRate, bool rateIsInvalid);

    function getRatesAndTime(uint index)
        external
        view
        returns (
            uint entryRate,
            uint lastRate,
            uint lastUpdated,
            uint newIndex
        );

    function getShortRatesAndTime(bytes32 currency, uint index)
        external
        view
        returns (
            uint entryRate,
            uint lastRate,
            uint lastUpdated,
            uint newIndex
        );

    function exceedsDebtLimit(uint amount, bytes32 currency) external view returns (bool canIssue, bool anyRateIsInvalid);

    function areSynthsAndCurrenciesSet(bytes32[] calldata requiredSynthNamesInResolver, bytes32[] calldata synthKeys)
        external
        view
        returns (bool);

    function areShortableSynthsSet(bytes32[] calldata requiredSynthNamesInResolver, bytes32[] calldata synthKeys)
        external
        view
        returns (bool);

    // Loans
    function getNewLoanId() external returns (uint id);

    // Manager mutative
    function addCollaterals(address[] calldata collaterals) external;

    function removeCollaterals(address[] calldata collaterals) external;

    function addSynths(bytes32[] calldata synthNamesInResolver, bytes32[] calldata synthKeys) external;

    function removeSynths(bytes32[] calldata synths, bytes32[] calldata synthKeys) external;

    function addShortableSynths(bytes32[] calldata requiredSynthNamesInResolver, bytes32[] calldata synthKeys) external;

    function removeShortableSynths(bytes32[] calldata synths) external;

    // State mutative

    function incrementLongs(bytes32 synth, uint amount) external;

    function decrementLongs(bytes32 synth, uint amount) external;

    function incrementShorts(bytes32 synth, uint amount) external;

    function decrementShorts(bytes32 synth, uint amount) external;

    function accrueInterest(
        uint interestIndex,
        bytes32 currency,
        bool isShort
    ) external returns (uint difference, uint index);

    function updateBorrowRatesCollateral(uint rate) external;

    function updateShortRatesCollateral(bytes32 currency, uint rate) external;
}


// https://docs.synthetix.io/contracts/source/interfaces/isystemstatus
interface ISystemStatus {
    struct Status {
        bool canSuspend;
        bool canResume;
    }

    struct Suspension {
        bool suspended;
        // reason is an integer code,
        // 0 => no reason, 1 => upgrading, 2+ => defined by system usage
        uint248 reason;
    }

    // Views
    function accessControl(bytes32 section, address account) external view returns (bool canSuspend, bool canResume);

    function requireSystemActive() external view;

    function systemSuspended() external view returns (bool);

    function requireIssuanceActive() external view;

    function requireExchangeActive() external view;

    function requireFuturesActive() external view;

    function requireFuturesMarketActive(bytes32 marketKey) external view;

    function requireExchangeBetweenSynthsAllowed(bytes32 sourceCurrencyKey, bytes32 destinationCurrencyKey) external view;

    function requireSynthActive(bytes32 currencyKey) external view;

    function synthSuspended(bytes32 currencyKey) external view returns (bool);

    function requireSynthsActive(bytes32 sourceCurrencyKey, bytes32 destinationCurrencyKey) external view;

    function systemSuspension() external view returns (bool suspended, uint248 reason);

    function issuanceSuspension() external view returns (bool suspended, uint248 reason);

    function exchangeSuspension() external view returns (bool suspended, uint248 reason);

    function futuresSuspension() external view returns (bool suspended, uint248 reason);

    function synthExchangeSuspension(bytes32 currencyKey) external view returns (bool suspended, uint248 reason);

    function synthSuspension(bytes32 currencyKey) external view returns (bool suspended, uint248 reason);

    function futuresMarketSuspension(bytes32 marketKey) external view returns (bool suspended, uint248 reason);

    function getSynthExchangeSuspensions(bytes32[] calldata synths)
        external
        view
        returns (bool[] memory exchangeSuspensions, uint256[] memory reasons);

    function getSynthSuspensions(bytes32[] calldata synths)
        external
        view
        returns (bool[] memory suspensions, uint256[] memory reasons);

    function getFuturesMarketSuspensions(bytes32[] calldata marketKeys)
        external
        view
        returns (bool[] memory suspensions, uint256[] memory reasons);

    // Restricted functions
    function suspendIssuance(uint256 reason) external;

    function suspendSynth(bytes32 currencyKey, uint256 reason) external;

    function suspendFuturesMarket(bytes32 marketKey, uint256 reason) external;

    function updateAccessControl(
        bytes32 section,
        address account,
        bool canSuspend,
        bool canResume
    ) external;
}


// https://docs.synthetix.io/contracts/source/interfaces/ifeepool
interface IFeePool {
    // Views

    // solhint-disable-next-line func-name-mixedcase
    function FEE_ADDRESS() external view returns (address);

    function feesAvailable(address account) external view returns (uint, uint);

    function feesBurned(address account) external view returns (uint);

    function feesToBurn(address account) external view returns (uint);

    function feePeriodDuration() external view returns (uint);

    function isFeesClaimable(address account) external view returns (bool);

    function targetThreshold() external view returns (uint);

    function totalFeesAvailable() external view returns (uint);

    function totalFeesBurned() external view returns (uint);

    function totalRewardsAvailable() external view returns (uint);

    // Mutative Functions
    function claimFees() external returns (bool);

    function claimOnBehalf(address claimingForAddress) external returns (bool);

    function closeCurrentFeePeriod() external;

    function closeSecondary(uint snxBackedDebt, uint debtShareSupply) external;

    function recordFeePaid(uint sUSDAmount) external;

    function setRewardsToDistribute(uint amount) external;
}


// https://docs.synthetix.io/contracts/source/interfaces/IDirectIntegration
interface IDirectIntegrationManager {
    struct ParameterIntegrationSettings {
        bytes32 currencyKey;
        address dexPriceAggregator;
        address atomicEquivalentForDexPricing;
        uint atomicExchangeFeeRate;
        uint atomicTwapWindow;
        uint atomicMaxVolumePerBlock;
        uint atomicVolatilityConsiderationWindow;
        uint atomicVolatilityUpdateThreshold;
        uint exchangeFeeRate;
        uint exchangeMaxDynamicFee;
        uint exchangeDynamicFeeRounds;
        uint exchangeDynamicFeeThreshold;
        uint exchangeDynamicFeeWeightDecay;
    }

    function getExchangeParameters(address integration, bytes32 key)
        external
        view
        returns (ParameterIntegrationSettings memory settings);

    function setExchangeParameters(
        address integration,
        bytes32[] calldata currencyKeys,
        ParameterIntegrationSettings calldata params
    ) external;
}


// https://docs.synthetix.io/contracts/source/interfaces/iexchangerates
interface IExchangeRates {
    // Structs
    struct RateAndUpdatedTime {
        uint216 rate;
        uint40 time;
    }

    // Views
    function aggregators(bytes32 currencyKey) external view returns (address);

    function aggregatorWarningFlags() external view returns (address);

    function anyRateIsInvalid(bytes32[] calldata currencyKeys) external view returns (bool);

    function anyRateIsInvalidAtRound(bytes32[] calldata currencyKeys, uint[] calldata roundIds) external view returns (bool);

    function currenciesUsingAggregator(address aggregator) external view returns (bytes32[] memory);

    function effectiveValue(
        bytes32 sourceCurrencyKey,
        uint sourceAmount,
        bytes32 destinationCurrencyKey
    ) external view returns (uint value);

    function effectiveValueAndRates(
        bytes32 sourceCurrencyKey,
        uint sourceAmount,
        bytes32 destinationCurrencyKey
    )
        external
        view
        returns (
            uint value,
            uint sourceRate,
            uint destinationRate
        );

    function effectiveValueAndRatesAtRound(
        bytes32 sourceCurrencyKey,
        uint sourceAmount,
        bytes32 destinationCurrencyKey,
        uint roundIdForSrc,
        uint roundIdForDest
    )
        external
        view
        returns (
            uint value,
            uint sourceRate,
            uint destinationRate
        );

    function effectiveAtomicValueAndRates(
        bytes32 sourceCurrencyKey,
        uint sourceAmount,
        bytes32 destinationCurrencyKey
    )
        external
        view
        returns (
            uint value,
            uint systemValue,
            uint systemSourceRate,
            uint systemDestinationRate
        );

    function effectiveAtomicValueAndRates(
        IDirectIntegrationManager.ParameterIntegrationSettings calldata sourceSettings,
        uint sourceAmount,
        IDirectIntegrationManager.ParameterIntegrationSettings calldata destinationSettings,
        IDirectIntegrationManager.ParameterIntegrationSettings calldata usdSettings
    )
        external
        view
        returns (
            uint value,
            uint systemValue,
            uint systemSourceRate,
            uint systemDestinationRate
        );

    function getCurrentRoundId(bytes32 currencyKey) external view returns (uint);

    function getLastRoundIdBeforeElapsedSecs(
        bytes32 currencyKey,
        uint startingRoundId,
        uint startingTimestamp,
        uint timediff
    ) external view returns (uint);

    function lastRateUpdateTimes(bytes32 currencyKey) external view returns (uint256);

    function rateAndTimestampAtRound(bytes32 currencyKey, uint roundId) external view returns (uint rate, uint time);

    function rateAndUpdatedTime(bytes32 currencyKey) external view returns (uint rate, uint time);

    function rateAndInvalid(bytes32 currencyKey) external view returns (uint rate, bool isInvalid);

    function rateForCurrency(bytes32 currencyKey) external view returns (uint);

    function rateIsFlagged(bytes32 currencyKey) external view returns (bool);

    function rateIsInvalid(bytes32 currencyKey) external view returns (bool);

    function rateIsStale(bytes32 currencyKey) external view returns (bool);

    function rateStalePeriod() external view returns (uint);

    function ratesAndUpdatedTimeForCurrencyLastNRounds(
        bytes32 currencyKey,
        uint numRounds,
        uint roundId
    ) external view returns (uint[] memory rates, uint[] memory times);

    function ratesAndInvalidForCurrencies(bytes32[] calldata currencyKeys)
        external
        view
        returns (uint[] memory rates, bool anyRateInvalid);

    function ratesForCurrencies(bytes32[] calldata currencyKeys) external view returns (uint[] memory);

    function synthTooVolatileForAtomicExchange(bytes32 currencyKey) external view returns (bool);

    function synthTooVolatileForAtomicExchange(IDirectIntegrationManager.ParameterIntegrationSettings calldata settings)
        external
        view
        returns (bool);

    function rateWithSafetyChecks(bytes32 currencyKey)
        external
        returns (
            uint rate,
            bool broken,
            bool invalid
        );
}


interface IVirtualSynth {
    // Views
    function balanceOfUnderlying(address account) external view returns (uint);

    function rate() external view returns (uint);

    function readyToSettle() external view returns (bool);

    function secsLeftInWaitingPeriod() external view returns (uint);

    function settled() external view returns (bool);

    function synth() external view returns (ISynth);

    // Mutative functions
    function settle(address account) external;
}


// https://docs.synthetix.io/contracts/source/interfaces/iexchanger
interface IExchanger {
    struct ExchangeEntrySettlement {
        bytes32 src;
        uint amount;
        bytes32 dest;
        uint reclaim;
        uint rebate;
        uint srcRoundIdAtPeriodEnd;
        uint destRoundIdAtPeriodEnd;
        uint timestamp;
    }

    struct ExchangeEntry {
        uint sourceRate;
        uint destinationRate;
        uint destinationAmount;
        uint exchangeFeeRate;
        uint exchangeDynamicFeeRate;
        uint roundIdForSrc;
        uint roundIdForDest;
        uint sourceAmountAfterSettlement;
    }

    // Views
    function calculateAmountAfterSettlement(
        address from,
        bytes32 currencyKey,
        uint amount,
        uint refunded
    ) external view returns (uint amountAfterSettlement);

    function isSynthRateInvalid(bytes32 currencyKey) external view returns (bool);

    function maxSecsLeftInWaitingPeriod(address account, bytes32 currencyKey) external view returns (uint);

    function settlementOwing(address account, bytes32 currencyKey)
        external
        view
        returns (
            uint reclaimAmount,
            uint rebateAmount,
            uint numEntries
        );

    function hasWaitingPeriodOrSettlementOwing(address account, bytes32 currencyKey) external view returns (bool);

    function feeRateForExchange(bytes32 sourceCurrencyKey, bytes32 destinationCurrencyKey) external view returns (uint);

    function dynamicFeeRateForExchange(bytes32 sourceCurrencyKey, bytes32 destinationCurrencyKey)
        external
        view
        returns (uint feeRate, bool tooVolatile);

    function getAmountsForExchange(
        uint sourceAmount,
        bytes32 sourceCurrencyKey,
        bytes32 destinationCurrencyKey
    )
        external
        view
        returns (
            uint amountReceived,
            uint fee,
            uint exchangeFeeRate
        );

    function priceDeviationThresholdFactor() external view returns (uint);

    function waitingPeriodSecs() external view returns (uint);

    function lastExchangeRate(bytes32 currencyKey) external view returns (uint);

    // Mutative functions
    function exchange(
        address exchangeForAddress,
        address from,
        bytes32 sourceCurrencyKey,
        uint sourceAmount,
        bytes32 destinationCurrencyKey,
        address destinationAddress,
        bool virtualSynth,
        address rewardAddress,
        bytes32 trackingCode
    ) external returns (uint amountReceived, IVirtualSynth vSynth);

    function exchangeAtomically(
        address from,
        bytes32 sourceCurrencyKey,
        uint sourceAmount,
        bytes32 destinationCurrencyKey,
        address destinationAddress,
        bytes32 trackingCode,
        uint minAmount
    ) external returns (uint amountReceived);

    function settle(address from, bytes32 currencyKey)
        external
        returns (
            uint reclaimed,
            uint refunded,
            uint numEntries
        );
}

// Used to have strongly-typed access to internal mutative functions in Synthetix
interface ISynthetixInternal {
    function emitExchangeTracking(
        bytes32 trackingCode,
        bytes32 toCurrencyKey,
        uint256 toAmount,
        uint256 fee
    ) external;

    function emitSynthExchange(
        address account,
        bytes32 fromCurrencyKey,
        uint fromAmount,
        bytes32 toCurrencyKey,
        uint toAmount,
        address toAddress
    ) external;

    function emitAtomicSynthExchange(
        address account,
        bytes32 fromCurrencyKey,
        uint fromAmount,
        bytes32 toCurrencyKey,
        uint toAmount,
        address toAddress
    ) external;

    function emitExchangeReclaim(
        address account,
        bytes32 currencyKey,
        uint amount
    ) external;

    function emitExchangeRebate(
        address account,
        bytes32 currencyKey,
        uint amount
    ) external;
}

interface IExchangerInternalDebtCache {
    function updateCachedSynthDebtsWithRates(bytes32[] calldata currencyKeys, uint[] calldata currencyRates) external;

    function updateCachedSynthDebts(bytes32[] calldata currencyKeys) external;
}


// https://docs.synthetix.io/contracts/source/interfaces/istakingrewards
interface IShortingRewards {
    // Views
    function lastTimeRewardApplicable() external view returns (uint256);

    function rewardPerToken() external view returns (uint256);

    function earned(address account) external view returns (uint256);

    function getRewardForDuration() external view returns (uint256);

    function totalSupply() external view returns (uint256);

    function balanceOf(address account) external view returns (uint256);

    // Mutative

    function enrol(address account, uint256 amount) external;

    function withdraw(address account, uint256 amount) external;

    function getReward(address account) external;
}


// Inheritance


// Libraries


// Internal references


contract Collateral is ICollateralLoan, Owned, MixinSystemSettings {
    /* ========== LIBRARIES ========== */
    using SafeMath for uint;
    using SafeDecimalMath for uint;
    using SafeERC20 for IERC20;

    /* ========== CONSTANTS ========== */

    bytes32 internal constant sUSD = "sUSD";

    // ========== STATE VARIABLES ==========

    // The synth corresponding to the collateral.
    bytes32 public collateralKey;

    // Stores open loans.
    mapping(uint => Loan) public loans;

    ICollateralManager public manager;

    // The synths that this contract can issue.
    bytes32[] public synths;

    // Map from currency key to synth contract name.
    mapping(bytes32 => bytes32) public synthsByKey;

    // Map from currency key to the shorting rewards contract
    mapping(bytes32 => address) public shortingRewards;

    // ========== SETTER STATE VARIABLES ==========

    // The minimum collateral ratio required to avoid liquidation.
    uint public minCratio;

    // The minimum amount of collateral to create a loan.
    uint public minCollateral;

    // The fee charged for issuing a loan.
    uint public issueFeeRate;

    bool public canOpenLoans = true;

    /* ========== ADDRESS RESOLVER CONFIGURATION ========== */

    bytes32 private constant CONTRACT_SYSTEMSTATUS = "SystemStatus";
    bytes32 private constant CONTRACT_EXRATES = "ExchangeRates";
    bytes32 private constant CONTRACT_EXCHANGER = "Exchanger";
    bytes32 private constant CONTRACT_FEEPOOL = "FeePool";
    bytes32 private constant CONTRACT_SYNTHSUSD = "SynthsUSD";
    bytes32 private constant CONTRACT_COLLATERALUTIL = "CollateralUtil";

    /* ========== CONSTRUCTOR ========== */

    constructor(
        address _owner,
        ICollateralManager _manager,
        address _resolver,
        bytes32 _collateralKey,
        uint _minCratio,
        uint _minCollateral
    ) public Owned(_owner) MixinSystemSettings(_resolver) {
        manager = _manager;
        collateralKey = _collateralKey;
        minCratio = _minCratio;
        minCollateral = _minCollateral;
    }

    /* ========== VIEWS ========== */

    function resolverAddressesRequired() public view returns (bytes32[] memory addresses) {
        bytes32[] memory existingAddresses = MixinSystemSettings.resolverAddressesRequired();
        bytes32[] memory newAddresses = new bytes32[](6);
        newAddresses[0] = CONTRACT_FEEPOOL;
        newAddresses[1] = CONTRACT_EXRATES;
        newAddresses[2] = CONTRACT_EXCHANGER;
        newAddresses[3] = CONTRACT_SYSTEMSTATUS;
        newAddresses[4] = CONTRACT_SYNTHSUSD;
        newAddresses[5] = CONTRACT_COLLATERALUTIL;

        bytes32[] memory combined = combineArrays(existingAddresses, newAddresses);

        addresses = combineArrays(combined, synths);
    }

    /* ---------- Related Contracts ---------- */

    function _systemStatus() internal view returns (ISystemStatus) {
        return ISystemStatus(requireAndGetAddress(CONTRACT_SYSTEMSTATUS));
    }

    function _synth(bytes32 synthName) internal view returns (ISynth) {
        return ISynth(requireAndGetAddress(synthName));
    }

    function _synthsUSD() internal view returns (ISynth) {
        return ISynth(requireAndGetAddress(CONTRACT_SYNTHSUSD));
    }

    function _exchangeRates() internal view returns (IExchangeRates) {
        return IExchangeRates(requireAndGetAddress(CONTRACT_EXRATES));
    }

    function _exchanger() internal view returns (IExchanger) {
        return IExchanger(requireAndGetAddress(CONTRACT_EXCHANGER));
    }

    function _feePool() internal view returns (IFeePool) {
        return IFeePool(requireAndGetAddress(CONTRACT_FEEPOOL));
    }

    function _collateralUtil() internal view returns (ICollateralUtil) {
        return ICollateralUtil(requireAndGetAddress(CONTRACT_COLLATERALUTIL));
    }

    /* ---------- Public Views ---------- */

    function collateralRatio(uint id) public view returns (uint cratio) {
        Loan memory loan = loans[id];
        return _collateralUtil().getCollateralRatio(loan, collateralKey);
    }

    function liquidationAmount(uint id) public view returns (uint liqAmount) {
        Loan memory loan = loans[id];
        return _collateralUtil().liquidationAmount(loan, minCratio, collateralKey);
    }

    // The maximum number of synths issuable for this amount of collateral
    function maxLoan(uint amount, bytes32 currency) public view returns (uint max) {
        return _collateralUtil().maxLoan(amount, currency, minCratio, collateralKey);
    }

    function areSynthsAndCurrenciesSet(bytes32[] calldata _synthNamesInResolver, bytes32[] calldata _synthKeys)
        external
        view
        returns (bool)
    {
        if (synths.length != _synthNamesInResolver.length) {
            return false;
        }

        for (uint i = 0; i < _synthNamesInResolver.length; i++) {
            bytes32 synthName = _synthNamesInResolver[i];
            if (synths[i] != synthName) {
                return false;
            }
            if (synthsByKey[_synthKeys[i]] != synths[i]) {
                return false;
            }
        }

        return true;
    }

    /* ---------- SETTERS ---------- */

    function setMinCollateral(uint _minCollateral) external onlyOwner {
        minCollateral = _minCollateral;
        emit MinCollateralUpdated(minCollateral);
    }

    function setIssueFeeRate(uint _issueFeeRate) external onlyOwner {
        issueFeeRate = _issueFeeRate;
        emit IssueFeeRateUpdated(issueFeeRate);
    }

    function setCanOpenLoans(bool _canOpenLoans) external onlyOwner {
        canOpenLoans = _canOpenLoans;
        emit CanOpenLoansUpdated(canOpenLoans);
    }

    /* ---------- UTILITIES ---------- */

    // Check the account has enough of the synth to make the payment
    function _checkSynthBalance(
        address payer,
        bytes32 key,
        uint amount
    ) internal view {
        require(IERC20(address(_synth(synthsByKey[key]))).balanceOf(payer) >= amount, "Not enough balance");
    }

    // We set the interest index to 0 to indicate the loan has been closed.
    function _checkLoanAvailable(Loan memory loan) internal view {
        _isLoanOpen(loan.interestIndex);
        require(loan.lastInteraction.add(getInteractionDelay(address(this))) <= block.timestamp, "Recently interacted");
    }

    function _isLoanOpen(uint interestIndex) internal pure {
        require(interestIndex != 0, "Loan is closed");
    }

    /* ========== MUTATIVE FUNCTIONS ========== */

    /* ---------- Synths ---------- */

    function addSynths(bytes32[] calldata _synthNamesInResolver, bytes32[] calldata _synthKeys) external onlyOwner {
        require(_synthNamesInResolver.length == _synthKeys.length, "Array length mismatch");

        for (uint i = 0; i < _synthNamesInResolver.length; i++) {
            bytes32 synthName = _synthNamesInResolver[i];
            synths.push(synthName);
            synthsByKey[_synthKeys[i]] = synthName;
        }

        // ensure cache has the latest
        rebuildCache();
    }

    /* ---------- Rewards Contracts ---------- */

    function addRewardsContracts(address rewardsContract, bytes32 synth) external onlyOwner {
        shortingRewards[synth] = rewardsContract;
    }

    /* ---------- LOAN INTERACTIONS ---------- */

    function _open(
        uint collateral,
        uint amount,
        bytes32 currency,
        bool short
    ) internal rateIsValid issuanceIsActive returns (uint id) {
        // 0. Check if able to open loans.
        require(canOpenLoans, "Open disabled");

        // 1. We can only issue certain synths.
        require(synthsByKey[currency] > 0, "Not allowed to issue");

        // 2. Make sure the synth rate is not invalid.
        require(!_exchangeRates().rateIsInvalid(currency), "Invalid rate");

        // 3. Collateral >= minimum collateral size.
        require(collateral >= minCollateral, "Not enough collateral");

        // 4. Check we haven't hit the debt cap for non snx collateral.
        (bool canIssue, bool anyRateIsInvalid) = manager.exceedsDebtLimit(amount, currency);

        // 5. Check if we've hit the debt cap or any rate is invalid.
        require(canIssue && !anyRateIsInvalid, "Debt limit or invalid rate");

        // 6. Require requested loan < max loan.
        require(amount <= maxLoan(collateral, currency), "Exceed max borrow power");

        // 7. This fee is denominated in the currency of the loan.
        uint issueFee = amount.multiplyDecimalRound(issueFeeRate);

        // 8. Calculate the minting fee and subtract it from the loan amount.
        uint loanAmountMinusFee = amount.sub(issueFee);

        // 9. Get a Loan ID.
        id = manager.getNewLoanId();

        // 10. Create the loan struct.
        loans[id] = Loan({
            id: id,
            account: msg.sender,
            collateral: collateral,
            currency: currency,
            amount: amount,
            short: short,
            accruedInterest: 0,
            interestIndex: 0,
            lastInteraction: block.timestamp
        });

        // 11. Accrue interest on the loan.
        _accrueInterest(loans[id]);

        // 12. Pay the minting fees to the fee pool.
        _payFees(issueFee, currency);

        // 13. If its short, convert back to sUSD, otherwise issue the loan.
        if (short) {
            _synthsUSD().issue(msg.sender, _exchangeRates().effectiveValue(currency, loanAmountMinusFee, sUSD));
            manager.incrementShorts(currency, amount);

            if (shortingRewards[currency] != address(0)) {
                IShortingRewards(shortingRewards[currency]).enrol(msg.sender, amount);
            }
        } else {
            _synth(synthsByKey[currency]).issue(msg.sender, loanAmountMinusFee);
            manager.incrementLongs(currency, amount);
        }

        // 14. Emit event for the newly opened loan.
        emit LoanCreated(msg.sender, id, amount, collateral, currency, issueFee);
    }

    function _close(address borrower, uint id) internal rateIsValid issuanceIsActive returns (uint amount, uint collateral) {
        // 0. Get the loan and accrue interest.
        Loan storage loan = _getLoanAndAccrueInterest(id, borrower);

        // 1. Check loan is open and last interaction time.
        _checkLoanAvailable(loan);

        // 2. Record loan as closed.
        (amount, collateral) = _closeLoan(borrower, borrower, loan);

        // 3. Emit the event for the closed loan.
        emit LoanClosed(borrower, id);
    }

    function _closeByLiquidation(
        address borrower,
        address liquidator,
        Loan storage loan
    ) internal returns (uint amount, uint collateral) {
        (amount, collateral) = _closeLoan(borrower, liquidator, loan);

        // Emit the event for the loan closed by liquidation.
        emit LoanClosedByLiquidation(borrower, loan.id, liquidator, amount, collateral);
    }

    function _closeLoan(
        address borrower,
        address liquidator,
        Loan storage loan
    ) internal returns (uint amount, uint collateral) {
        // 0. Work out the total amount owing on the loan.
        uint total = loan.amount.add(loan.accruedInterest);

        // 1. Store this for the event.
        amount = loan.amount;

        // 2. Return collateral to the child class so it knows how much to transfer.
        collateral = loan.collateral;

        // 3. Check that the liquidator has enough synths.
        _checkSynthBalance(liquidator, loan.currency, total);

        // 4. Burn the synths.
        _synth(synthsByKey[loan.currency]).burn(liquidator, total);

        // 5. Tell the manager.
        if (loan.short) {
            manager.decrementShorts(loan.currency, loan.amount);

            if (shortingRewards[loan.currency] != address(0)) {
                IShortingRewards(shortingRewards[loan.currency]).withdraw(borrower, loan.amount);
            }
        } else {
            manager.decrementLongs(loan.currency, loan.amount);
        }

        // 6. Pay fees.
        _payFees(loan.accruedInterest, loan.currency);

        // 7. Record loan as closed.
        _recordLoanAsClosed(loan);
    }

    function _deposit(
        address account,
        uint id,
        uint amount
    ) internal rateIsValid issuanceIsActive returns (uint, uint) {
        // 0. They sent some value > 0
        require(amount > 0, "Deposit must be above 0");

        // 1. Get the loan.
        // Owner is not important here, as it is a donation to the collateral of the loan
        Loan storage loan = loans[id];

        // 2. Check loan hasn't been closed or liquidated.
        _isLoanOpen(loan.interestIndex);

        // 3. Accrue interest on the loan.
        _accrueInterest(loan);

        // 4. Add the collateral.
        loan.collateral = loan.collateral.add(amount);

        // 5. Emit the event for the deposited collateral.
        emit CollateralDeposited(account, id, amount, loan.collateral);

        return (loan.amount, loan.collateral);
    }

    function _withdraw(uint id, uint amount) internal rateIsValid issuanceIsActive returns (uint, uint) {
        // 0. Get the loan and accrue interest.
        Loan storage loan = _getLoanAndAccrueInterest(id, msg.sender);

        // 1. Subtract the collateral.
        loan.collateral = loan.collateral.sub(amount);

        // 2. Check that the new amount does not put them under the minimum c ratio.
        _checkLoanRatio(loan);

        // 3. Emit the event for the withdrawn collateral.
        emit CollateralWithdrawn(msg.sender, id, amount, loan.collateral);

        return (loan.amount, loan.collateral);
    }

    function _liquidate(
        address borrower,
        uint id,
        uint payment
    ) internal rateIsValid issuanceIsActive returns (uint collateralLiquidated) {
        require(payment > 0, "Payment must be above 0");

        // 0. Get the loan and accrue interest.
        Loan storage loan = _getLoanAndAccrueInterest(id, borrower);

        // 1. Check they have enough balance to make the payment.
        _checkSynthBalance(msg.sender, loan.currency, payment);

        // 2. Check they are eligible for liquidation.
        // Note: this will revert if collateral is 0, however that should only be possible if the loan amount is 0.
        require(_collateralUtil().getCollateralRatio(loan, collateralKey) < minCratio, "Cratio above liq ratio");

        // 3. Determine how much needs to be liquidated to fix their c ratio.
        uint liqAmount = _collateralUtil().liquidationAmount(loan, minCratio, collateralKey);

        // 4. Only allow them to liquidate enough to fix the c ratio.
        uint amountToLiquidate = liqAmount < payment ? liqAmount : payment;

        // 5. Work out the total amount owing on the loan.
        uint amountOwing = loan.amount.add(loan.accruedInterest);

        // 6. If its greater than the amount owing, we need to close the loan.
        if (amountToLiquidate >= amountOwing) {
            (, collateralLiquidated) = _closeByLiquidation(borrower, msg.sender, loan);
            return collateralLiquidated;
        }

        // 7. Check they have enough balance to liquidate the loan.
        _checkSynthBalance(msg.sender, loan.currency, amountToLiquidate);

        // 8. Process the payment to workout interest/principal split.
        _processPayment(loan, amountToLiquidate);

        // 9. Work out how much collateral to redeem.
        collateralLiquidated = _collateralUtil().collateralRedeemed(loan.currency, amountToLiquidate, collateralKey);
        loan.collateral = loan.collateral.sub(collateralLiquidated);

        // 10. Burn the synths from the liquidator.
        _synth(synthsByKey[loan.currency]).burn(msg.sender, amountToLiquidate);

        // 11. Emit the event for the partial liquidation.
        emit LoanPartiallyLiquidated(borrower, id, msg.sender, amountToLiquidate, collateralLiquidated);
    }

    function _repay(
        address borrower,
        address repayer,
        uint id,
        uint payment
    ) internal rateIsValid issuanceIsActive returns (uint, uint) {
        // 0. Get the loan.
        // Owner is not important here, as it is a donation to repay the loan.
        Loan storage loan = loans[id];

        // 1. Check loan is open and last interaction time.
        _checkLoanAvailable(loan);

        // 2. Check the spender has enough synths to make the repayment
        _checkSynthBalance(repayer, loan.currency, payment);

        // 3. Accrue interest on the loan.
        _accrueInterest(loan);

        // 4. Process the payment.
        _processPayment(loan, payment);

        // 5. Burn synths from the payer
        _synth(synthsByKey[loan.currency]).burn(repayer, payment);

        // 6. Update the last interaction time.
        loan.lastInteraction = block.timestamp;

        // 7. Emit the event the repayment.
        emit LoanRepaymentMade(borrower, repayer, id, payment, loan.amount);

        // 8. Return the loan amount and collateral after repaying.
        return (loan.amount, loan.collateral);
    }

    function _draw(uint id, uint amount) internal rateIsValid issuanceIsActive returns (uint, uint) {
        // 0. Get the loan and accrue interest.
        Loan storage loan = _getLoanAndAccrueInterest(id, msg.sender);

        // 1. Check last interaction time.
        _checkLoanAvailable(loan);

        // 2. Add the requested amount.
        loan.amount = loan.amount.add(amount);

        // 3. If it is below the minimum, don't allow this draw.
        _checkLoanRatio(loan);

        // 4. This fee is denominated in the currency of the loan
        uint issueFee = amount.multiplyDecimalRound(issueFeeRate);

        // 5. Calculate the minting fee and subtract it from the draw amount
        uint amountMinusFee = amount.sub(issueFee);

        // 6. If its short, issue the synths.
        if (loan.short) {
            manager.incrementShorts(loan.currency, amount);
            _synthsUSD().issue(msg.sender, _exchangeRates().effectiveValue(loan.currency, amountMinusFee, sUSD));

            if (shortingRewards[loan.currency] != address(0)) {
                IShortingRewards(shortingRewards[loan.currency]).enrol(msg.sender, amount);
            }
        } else {
            manager.incrementLongs(loan.currency, amount);
            _synth(synthsByKey[loan.currency]).issue(msg.sender, amountMinusFee);
        }

        // 7. Pay the minting fees to the fee pool
        _payFees(issueFee, loan.currency);

        // 8. Update the last interaction time.
        loan.lastInteraction = block.timestamp;

        // 9. Emit the event for the draw down.
        emit LoanDrawnDown(msg.sender, id, amount);

        return (loan.amount, loan.collateral);
    }

    // Update the cumulative interest rate for the currency that was interacted with.
    function _accrueInterest(Loan storage loan) internal {
        (uint differential, uint newIndex) = manager.accrueInterest(loan.interestIndex, loan.currency, loan.short);

        // If the loan was just opened, don't record any interest. Otherwise multiply by the amount outstanding.
        uint interest = loan.interestIndex == 0 ? 0 : loan.amount.multiplyDecimal(differential);

        // Update the loan.
        loan.accruedInterest = loan.accruedInterest.add(interest);
        loan.interestIndex = newIndex;
    }

    // Works out the amount of interest and principal after a repayment is made.
    function _processPayment(Loan storage loan, uint payment) internal {
        require(payment > 0, "Payment must be above 0");

        if (loan.accruedInterest > 0) {
            uint interestPaid = payment > loan.accruedInterest ? loan.accruedInterest : payment;
            loan.accruedInterest = loan.accruedInterest.sub(interestPaid);
            payment = payment.sub(interestPaid);

            _payFees(interestPaid, loan.currency);
        }

        // If there is more payment left after the interest, pay down the principal.
        if (payment > 0) {
            loan.amount = loan.amount.sub(payment);

            // And get the manager to reduce the total long/short balance.
            if (loan.short) {
                manager.decrementShorts(loan.currency, payment);

                if (shortingRewards[loan.currency] != address(0)) {
                    IShortingRewards(shortingRewards[loan.currency]).withdraw(loan.account, payment);
                }
            } else {
                manager.decrementLongs(loan.currency, payment);
            }
        }
    }

    // Take an amount of fees in a certain synth and convert it to sUSD before paying the fee pool.
    function _payFees(uint amount, bytes32 synth) internal {
        if (amount > 0) {
            if (synth != sUSD) {
                amount = _exchangeRates().effectiveValue(synth, amount, sUSD);
            }
            _synthsUSD().issue(_feePool().FEE_ADDRESS(), amount);
            _feePool().recordFeePaid(amount);
        }
    }

    function _recordLoanAsClosed(Loan storage loan) internal {
        loan.amount = 0;
        loan.collateral = 0;
        loan.accruedInterest = 0;
        loan.interestIndex = 0;
        loan.lastInteraction = block.timestamp;
    }

    function _getLoanAndAccrueInterest(uint id, address owner) internal returns (Loan storage loan) {
        loan = loans[id];

        // Make sure the loan is open and it is the borrower.
        _isLoanOpen(loan.interestIndex);

        require(loan.account == owner, "Must be borrower");

        _accrueInterest(loan);
    }

    function _checkLoanRatio(Loan storage loan) internal view {
        if (loan.amount == 0) {
            return;
        }
        require(collateralRatio(loan.id) > minCratio, "Cratio too low");
    }

    // ========== MODIFIERS ==========

    modifier rateIsValid() {
        _requireRateIsValid();
        _;
    }

    function _requireRateIsValid() private view {
        require(!_exchangeRates().rateIsInvalid(collateralKey), "Invalid rate");
    }

    modifier issuanceIsActive() {
        _requireIssuanceIsActive();
        _;
    }

    function _requireIssuanceIsActive() private view {
        _systemStatus().requireIssuanceActive();
    }

    // ========== EVENTS ==========

    // Setters
    event MinCollateralUpdated(uint minCollateral);
    event IssueFeeRateUpdated(uint issueFeeRate);
    event CanOpenLoansUpdated(bool canOpenLoans);

    // Loans
    event LoanCreated(address indexed account, uint id, uint amount, uint collateral, bytes32 currency, uint issuanceFee);
    event LoanClosed(address indexed account, uint id);
    event CollateralDeposited(address indexed account, uint id, uint amountDeposited, uint collateralAfter);
    event CollateralWithdrawn(address indexed account, uint id, uint amountWithdrawn, uint collateralAfter);
    event LoanRepaymentMade(address indexed account, address indexed repayer, uint id, uint amountRepaid, uint amountAfter);
    event LoanDrawnDown(address indexed account, uint id, uint amount);
    event LoanPartiallyLiquidated(
        address indexed account,
        uint id,
        address liquidator,
        uint amountLiquidated,
        uint collateralLiquidated
    );
    event LoanClosedByLiquidation(
        address indexed account,
        uint id,
        address indexed liquidator,
        uint amountLiquidated,
        uint collateralLiquidated
    );
    event LoanClosedByRepayment(address indexed account, uint id, uint amountRepaid, uint collateralAfter);
}


/**
 * @dev Contract module that helps prevent reentrant calls to a function.
 *
 * Inheriting from `ReentrancyGuard` will make the `nonReentrant` modifier
 * available, which can be aplied to functions to make sure there are no nested
 * (reentrant) calls to them.
 *
 * Note that because there is a single `nonReentrant` guard, functions marked as
 * `nonReentrant` may not call one another. This can be worked around by making
 * those functions `private`, and then adding `external` `nonReentrant` entry
 * points to them.
 */
contract ReentrancyGuard {
    /// @dev counter to allow mutex lock with only one SSTORE operation
    uint256 private _guardCounter;

    constructor () internal {
        // The counter starts at one to prevent changing it from zero to a non-zero
        // value, which is a more expensive operation.
        _guardCounter = 1;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Prevents a contract from calling itself, directly or indirectly.
     * Calling a `nonReentrant` function from another `nonReentrant`
     * function is not supported. It is possible to prevent this from happening
     * by making the `nonReentrant` function external, and make it call a
     * `private` function that does the actual work.
     */
    modifier nonReentrant() {
        _guardCounter += 1;
        uint256 localCounter = _guardCounter;
        _;
        require(localCounter == _guardCounter, "ReentrancyGuard: reentrant call");
    }
}


interface ICollateralEth {
    function open(uint amount, bytes32 currency) external payable returns (uint id);

    function close(uint id) external returns (uint amount, uint collateral);

    function deposit(address borrower, uint id) external payable returns (uint principal, uint collateral);

    function withdraw(uint id, uint amount) external returns (uint principal, uint collateral);

    function repay(
        address borrower,
        uint id,
        uint amount
    ) external returns (uint principal, uint collateral);

    function draw(uint id, uint amount) external returns (uint principal, uint collateral);

    function liquidate(
        address borrower,
        uint id,
        uint amount
    ) external;

    function claim(uint amount) external;
}


// Inheritance


// This contract handles the payable aspects of eth loans.
contract CollateralEth is Collateral, ICollateralEth, ReentrancyGuard {
    mapping(address => uint) public pendingWithdrawals;

    constructor(
        address _owner,
        ICollateralManager _manager,
        address _resolver,
        bytes32 _collateralKey,
        uint _minCratio,
        uint _minCollateral
    ) public Collateral(_owner, _manager, _resolver, _collateralKey, _minCratio, _minCollateral) {}

    function open(uint amount, bytes32 currency) external payable returns (uint id) {
        id = _open(msg.value, amount, currency, false);
    }

    function close(uint id) external returns (uint amount, uint collateral) {
        (amount, collateral) = _close(msg.sender, id);

        pendingWithdrawals[msg.sender] = pendingWithdrawals[msg.sender].add(collateral);
    }

    function deposit(address borrower, uint id) external payable returns (uint principal, uint collateral) {
        (principal, collateral) = _deposit(borrower, id, msg.value);
    }

    function withdraw(uint id, uint amount) external returns (uint principal, uint collateral) {
        (principal, collateral) = _withdraw(id, amount);

        pendingWithdrawals[msg.sender] = pendingWithdrawals[msg.sender].add(amount);
    }

    function repay(
        address borrower,
        uint id,
        uint amount
    ) external returns (uint principal, uint collateral) {
        (principal, collateral) = _repay(borrower, msg.sender, id, amount);
    }

    function draw(uint id, uint amount) external returns (uint principal, uint collateral) {
        (principal, collateral) = _draw(id, amount);
    }

    function liquidate(
        address borrower,
        uint id,
        uint amount
    ) external {
        uint collateralLiquidated = _liquidate(borrower, id, amount);

        pendingWithdrawals[msg.sender] = pendingWithdrawals[msg.sender].add(collateralLiquidated);
    }

    function claim(uint amount) external nonReentrant {
        // If they try to withdraw more than their total balance, it will fail on the safe sub.
        pendingWithdrawals[msg.sender] = pendingWithdrawals[msg.sender].sub(amount);

        // solhint-disable avoid-low-level-calls
        (bool success, ) = msg.sender.call.value(amount)("");
        require(success, "Transfer failed");
    }
}

Contract ABI

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Constructor Arguments (ABI-Encoded and is the last bytes of the Contract Creation Code above)

00000000000000000000000048914229dedd5a9922f44441ffccfc2cb7856ee90000000000000000000000004dbb50b97ebbc4c29eddbe021ab67b588b979711000000000000000000000000b61a6af69e992e1bed69b0ae0cba5143ca25d4d17345544800000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000120a871cc00200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001bc16d674ec80000

-----Decoded View---------------
Arg [0] : _owner (address): 0x48914229deDd5A9922f44441ffCCfC2Cb7856Ee9
Arg [1] : _manager (address): 0x4dBB50B97EBBC4c29EddbE021Ab67b588b979711
Arg [2] : _resolver (address): 0xb61a6aF69e992e1bed69b0aE0CBa5143CA25D4D1
Arg [3] : _collateralKey (bytes32): 0x7345544800000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
Arg [4] : _minCratio (uint256): 1300000000000000000
Arg [5] : _minCollateral (uint256): 2000000000000000000

-----Encoded View---------------
6 Constructor Arguments found :
Arg [0] : 00000000000000000000000048914229dedd5a9922f44441ffccfc2cb7856ee9
Arg [1] : 0000000000000000000000004dbb50b97ebbc4c29eddbe021ab67b588b979711
Arg [2] : 000000000000000000000000b61a6af69e992e1bed69b0ae0cba5143ca25d4d1
Arg [3] : 7345544800000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
Arg [4] : 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000120a871cc0020000
Arg [5] : 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001bc16d674ec80000


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A contract address hosts a smart contract, which is a set of code stored on the blockchain that runs when predetermined conditions are met. Learn more about addresses in our Knowledge Base.